360竞彩足球

商会党建

儒家思想与现代经济



 儒家重视财富,但不鼓励热心追求财富;斯密宁愿借助利己的努力去达到利他的目的。这是斯密和中国儒家最大的不同。

SHIWULIUSHIJIZHONG,ZHONGGUOSHICHANGJINGJIHUOYUE,YUELAIYUEDUOREN“QIRURUJIA”,TAMEN“YIYIZHILI”,YIZHENGCHANGHUAYINGLIDEXINGWEI,SHIZHUANQIANHEYU“DAO”,ERZHUANLEQIANCONGSHIGONGYIHUODONG,JUEDEBINGBUSHIZHIYOU“ZHIGUOPINGTIANXIA”CAIYOUGONGXIAN。

HENDUORENRENWEIRUJIASIXIANGZHONGSHILUNLIBUZHONGSHICAIFU,SUOYIXIANDAIJINGJICHENGZHANGBUCHUXIANYUZHONGGUO;ZIBENZHUYIZHONGSHICAIFUERBUZHONGSHILUNLI,SUOYIJINGJICHENGZHANGFASHENGHENDUOBIDUAN。ZHEIHUASUIRANBUSHIHENZHUNQUE,DANSHIYEPOFUHELISHIDEXIANSHI。RUGUOJIANGXIANDAIJINGJIZHIDUJIASHANGLUNLI,ZEJINGJIFAZHANYIDINGHUIYOUGENGHAODECHENGJIU。ZHEIYESHIRUJIADUIDANGQIANSHIJIEKEYICHANSHENGDEZHONGDAGONGXIAN。

YI、RUJIADECAIFUGUAN

360竞彩足球DUIRENMINERYAN,CAIFUHENZHONGYAO。KONGZISHIWEI,KANDAOWEIGUORENKOUZHONGDUO,ZANYUE:“FUYIZAI!”DIZIRANYOUWENTA:“JISHUYIYOUHEJIAYAN?”YUE:“FUZHI。”ZAIWEN:“JIFUYIYOUHEJIAYAN?”YUE:“JIAOZHI。”(《LUNYU·ZILU》)SHIRENMINFUYUSHIZHONGYAODESHIZHENGMUBIAO。CAIFUDUIRENMINHENZHONGYAO,ZHENGFUFUZERENDEGAOGUANDANGRANYAOZHONGSHI,DANYINGZHONGSHIDESHIZENGJIARENMINDECAIFU,BUSHIJULIANZHENGFUHEZIJIDECAIFU。《DAXUE》:“DEZHIBENYE,CAIZHEMOYE。WAIBENNEIMO,ZHENGMINSHIDUO。SHIGUCAIJUZEMINSAN,CAISANZEMINJU。”SUOYIRANQIUWEIJISHIJULIAN,KONGZIHENSHENGQI,YUE:“FEIWUTUYE!XIAOZIMINGGUERGONGZHIKEYE。”(《LUNYU·XIANJIN》)

ZHIYUDUIRUZHEERYAN,CAIFUSUIHAO,DANBIXUFUHEYUANZECAINENGJIESHOU,FOUZENINGKEMEIYOUCAIFU,YINWEIRENSHENGHAIYOUBICAIFUGENGZHONGYAODEJIAZHI。KONGZISHUO:“FUYUGUI,SHIRENZHISUOYUYE;BUYIQIDAODEZHI,BUCHUYE;PINYUJIAN,SHIRENZHISUOEYE;BUYIQIDAODEZHI,BUQUYE。”(《LUNYU·LIREN》)YOUSHUO:“FANSHUSHI,YINSHUI,QUGONGERZHENZHI,LEYIZAIQIZHONGYI。BUYIERFUQIEGUI,YUWORUFUYUN。”(《LUNYU·SHUER》)KONGMENGAODIYOU“JIALEIQIANJIN”DEZIGONG,YEYOU“YIDANSHI,YIPIAOYIN,ZAILOUXIANG”BUGAIQILEDEYANHUIHENIJUXIANGYE“BUYANZAOKANG”DEYUANXIAN。

360竞彩足球YIGUODESHENGCHANNENGLIANG,ZUIHOUQUJUEYUZHEIGEGUOJIADEJISHUTIAOJIAN。GUORENZHUIQIUCAIFUDENULI,YIJIYINDAOGUOJIAJINGYINGRENCAIZHUIZHUCAIFU,KENENGDAOZHICHUANGXIN,SHIJISHUSHUIZHUNTISHENG,GUOJIASUONENGCHANSHENGDEZONGSHENGCHANLIANGZENGJIA,DANCHIXUBUDUANDEJISHUJINBUSHISHENGCHANLIANGYURENJUNCHANLIANGHUOSUODECHIXUBUDUANZENGJIA,SHIXIANDAIJISHUYANFACHUXIANYIHOUCAIYOUDEXIANXIANG。ZHEIZHONGXIANXIANGJIUSHI“XIANDAIJINGJIZENGZHANG”。YINCI,RUJIAZHONGSHICAIFUDANBUGULIREXINZHUIQIUCAIFU,ZHENGFUHEDANGSHIDEJISHUTIAOJIAN。BUGUJISHUTIAOJIANDEXIANZHI,DUICAIFUGUOFENREZHONG,BUDANSHIGERENGENGBUMANZU,ERQIEHUIYINQISHEHUIZHENGDUOBUAN,YIZHILUNLIBURONGYIWEICHI。

RUJIASUOZHUIQIUDESHIWANMEIDERENGE,CHENGJIUDECAIJIANBEIDEJUNZI,“YONGZHIZEXING,SHEZHIZEZANG”,YOUJIHUIJIU“CHUSHI”WEIGUOJIAZUOSHI,WEIBAIXINGMOUFULI,MEIYOUJIHUIJIUDUSHANQISHEN,PINGZHEGAOJIEDERENGEHEFENGHOUDEXUEYANG,YIYANGKEYIZIDEQILE,HUOCHURENSHENGDEJIAZHI。

YUYINGSHIZAI《ZHONGGUOWENHUASHITONGSHI》JIANGDAO,DATILAISHUO,ZIHANZHISONG,RUXUESIXIANGDUISHANGYEYUSHANGRENBAOCHIXIAOJISHENZHIFOUDINGDETAIDU。SONGDAIDEZHUXIRENWEIJINGSHANGZHIFUZUYIHAIDAO,DUIYUZIDIJINGSHANGZHIJIYUWEICHIYISHIWUYUDEZUIDIXIANDU。MINGDAIDEWANGYANGMINGSUIRANSHUO:“GUZHESIMINYIYEERTONGDAO”,DANYOUSHUOZHISHENG“BUKEYIWEISHOUWU,TUQIYINGLIZHIXIN。”

360竞彩足球SHIWULIUSHIJIZHONG,ZHONGGUOSHICHANGJINGJIHUOYUE,YUELAIYUEDUOREN“QIRURUJIA”,TAMEN“YIYIZHILI”,YIZHENGCHANGHUAYINGLIDEXINGWEI,SHIZHUANQIANHEYU“DAO”,ERZHUANLEQIANCONGSHIGONGYIHUODONG,JUEDEBINGBUSHIZHIYOU“ZHIGUOPINGTIANXIA”CAIYOUGONGXIAN,SHANGRENYIYANGKEYIDUISHEHUIYOUGONGXIAN。

ER、ZIBENZHUYI,GONGPINGZUIZHONGYAO

360竞彩足球SHUODAOZIBENZHUYI,RENMENKENENGLIKEXIANGDAOZIBENZHUYIJINGJIDIYIWEILILUNDASHIYADANG·SIMIDEMINGYAN:MEIGERENZHUIQIUZIJIDELIYI,MINGMINGZHONGRUYOUYIZHIKANBUJIANDESHOU,DAILINGDACHENGSHEHUIQUANTIDELIYI,ERQIEBIXUYIDACHENGSHEHUILIYIGENGYOUXIAO。ZHEIJIUSHISIMIDESILIGONGYIDIAOHESHUO。

360竞彩足球SIMIZAIQI《DAODEQINGCAOLUN》ZHONGZHICHU,RENXINGYOULIJIDECHENGFEN,YEYOULITADECHENGFEN。LIJIRANGWOMENZHUIQIUCAIFUYIJISHEHUIDIWEIYUMINGSHENG,YOUCIYINSHENCHU“SHENSHENDEMEIDE”。RENYAOSHENGCUNFAZHAN,BUNENGBUYOUYIDIANWUZHICAIFU,ERRENZAISHEHUIZHONGXUYAOBEIRENTONG、BEIKENDING,YOUYIDIANDIWEIHEYINGXIANGLI,JUEDEHUOZHEYOUYIYI。LITACHUYUTONGQING,KANDAOBIERENXINGFUGANDAOXINWEI,KANDAOBIERENBUXINGGANDAOBEIAI,YOUCIYINSHENCHU“GONGPINGDEMEIDE”HE“RENCIDEMEIDE”。GONGPINGSHIBUJIANSHAOBIERENDELIYI,RENCISHIZENGJIABIERENDELIYI。SIMIDETONGQINGHENXIANGMENGZIDECEYINZHIXIN。CEYINZHIXINRENJIEYOUZHI。RANERLIJIZHIXINQIANGLIE,LITAZHIXINBORUO,ZHEISHIRENXINGDEBENNENG。JIUXIANGMENGZISUOSHUODE“CEYINZHIXINRENZHIDUANYE”,DANSHI,“GOUNENGCHONGZHI,ZUYIBAOSIHAI;GOUBUCHONGZHI,BUZUYISHIFUMU。”(《MENGZI·GONGSUNCHOU》)SUOYI,SIMININGYUANJIEZHULIJIDENULIQUDADAOLITADEMUDE。ZHEISHISIMIHEZHONGGUORUJIADEZUIDABUTONG。

在利他的美德中,公平是积极的义务,必须要求;仁慈是非积极的义务,只能期待。社会如能进入仁慈的境界,当然很好,但是最重要的是公平。公平才能和谐无争,使社会在安定和秩序中产生效率。斯密《国富论》中的经济理论建立在公平的基础上。每个人在追求自己利益的过程中,如果未伤害到任何其他人的利益,则唯有为社会创造了新增的利益,而他所创造的利益,才是社会净增加的利益。

ZAIZIBENZHUYIZHIDUXIA,GERENZHUIQIUZIJIDELIYI,JIEGUOCUJINLESHEHUIDELIYI,SHIJINGJICHIXUZENGZHANG,QISUOXUYAODEJISHUTIAOJIAN,JIUSHI17SHIJIYUOUZHOUXINGQIDEXIANDAIKEXUEHE18SHIJICONGYINGGUOKAISHIDEGONGYEGEMING。GONGYEGEMINGTISHENGLESHENGCHANJISHUSHUIZHUN,ERKEXUEYANJIUDECHENGGUOSHIJISHUQUDECHIXUJINBUDEKENENGXING。YOUCHIXUBUDUANDEJINBU,CAIYOUCHIXUBUDUANDEJINGJICHENGZHANG,ZHEIJIUSHISUOWEIDE“XIANDAIJINGJICHENGZHANG”。ZHEISHIZHONGGUOZAIZHUIQIUXIANDAIHUAYIQIANSUOMEIYOUDEXIANXIANG。SIMIZAITADE《GUOFULUN》ZHONGCENGJINGSHUO:ZHONGGUOSUIRANFUYOU,DANQUEMEIYOUJINBU(CHENGZHANG)。

360竞彩足球SIMISUOSHUODEGONGPINGJINSIRUJIASUOSHUODE“YI”。GERENZAIZHUIQIUZILIDEGUOCHENGZHONGWEICHIGONGPINGDEYUANZE,YOURUMINGDAISHIREN“QIRURUJIA”SUOQIANGDIAODE“YIYIZHILI”。BUGUOWUSHIDEYADANG·SIMIDUIRENDELITAYIZHIBINGBUSHIHENYOUXINXIN,TANINGYUANRANGSHICHANGFAHUIGONGPINGDEZUOYONG。QIYESHENGCHANGUOCHENGZHONG,BULUNGOUMAIYUANCAILIAO、CHUSHOUHUOWUHUOLAOWU、JIEQIAN、ZUFANGZI、PINQINGYUANGONG,DOUGEYOUQISHICHANGJUEDINGMAIMAISHUANGFANGDOUJIESHOUDEJIAGE。BUGUOWENTISHI,SHICHANGBUSHIDOUGONGZHENGKEKAO,SHICHANGYOUSHIHOUBEILONGDUANHUOCAOZONG。RUGUOTAIGULIZHUIQIUZILI,YOUSHIHOUHUIXISHENGGONGPING。SUOYIKONGZISHUO:“FANGYULIERXING,DUOYUAN。”(《LUNYU·LIREN》)RANGLIQIANZHEBIZIZOU,YIZHIQINFANDAOBIERENDELIYI,DANGRANHUIYINQIYUANHEN,SHENZHIFASHENGCHONGTU,RANGDAJIADOUSHOUDAOSHANGHAI。

SAN、RUJIASIXIANGDEDANGDAIYIYI

ANZHAOYADANG·SIMIDERENSHENGSANMEIDEDESHUOFA,CAIFUKECHENGWEIJINGJIJIAZHI;DIWEIHEMINGSHENGKECHENGWEISHEHUIJIAZHI,HECHENGSHISUJIAZHI;GONGPINGHERENCIKECHENGWEILUNLIJIAZHI。

RENDEXINGWEIYIFANGMIANSHOUJIAZHIYINDAO,YIFANGMIANSHOUGUIFANYUESHU。SHEHUIDEJIAZHIXITONGRUGUODUIGEZHONGJIAZHIYOUPINGHENGDEANPAI,SHISHEHUIFENZIZAIZHUIQIUGONGMINGLILU、SHISUJIAZHIDETONGSHIYEZHONGSHILUNLIJIAZHI,SHEHUIJIUKEYIZAIFUYUJINBUZHONGWEICHIHEXIE,ZENGJINXINGFU。

RANER,ZAIDANGQIANQUANSHIJIEREZHONGYUZHUIQIUKUAISUJINGJICHENGZHANGDEWENHUAZHONG,JINGJICHENGJIUBEIZHIYUZUIYOUXIANDEDIWEI,JINGJIJIAZHIGAOYUYIQIE,LUNLIJIAZHIRIYUTUIJUBUZHONGYAODEDIWEI。ZHUIQIUCAIFU,BUZESHOUDUAN,BIDUANJIUHUIBUDUANFASHENG。ZAIZHEIZHONGQINGXINGXIA,ZILIBUNENGCHONGFENDACHENGGONGYIDEMUDE,LIRUNYEBUNENGWANQUANFANYINGDUISHEHUIDEGONGXIAN,ZHEICIGUOJIJINRONGWEIJIJIUFANYINGLEZHEIYANGYIZHONGQINGKUANG。CENGBEIPINGWEI2000NIANQUANMEIZUIJIATOUZIYINXINGDEMEIGUOLEIMANXIONGDIGONGSIYU2008NIANPOCHANHOU,ZHONGYUANZHENGFUGAIGEJIANDUWEIYUANHUIZHUXIWEIKEMANZEWENLEIMANGONGSIZHIXINGZHANGFUDESHUO:“RUJINNIMENDEGONGSIPOCHAN,WOMENGUOJIAXIANRUWEIJI,NIZIJIQUENONGDAO4.8YIMEIYUAN。WOWENNIYIGEJIBENWENTI:ZHEIYANGSUANGONGPINGMA?”

MEIGUOMASHENGLIGONGXUEYUANDESUOLUOJIAOSHOUSHUOGUOYIGEHENHAODEBIYU:NEIXIEWEILEFANGFANBIDUANFASHENGSUOSHEJIDEFAGUI,JIUXIANGHAIZAIDASHANGYICHANGZHANZHENGDEJIANGJUN,ZHEIXIEFAGUIRUGUOCUNZAI,JINTIANDEBIDUANJIUBUHUIFASHENG,DANBUNENGFANGZHIMINGTIANDEBIDUAN,YINWEIMINGTIANDEBIDUANHUICONGXINDELOUDONGCHUXIAN。KONGZISHUO:“DAOZHIYIZHENG,QIZHIYIXING,MINMIANERWUCHI;DAOZHIYIDE,QIZHIYILI,YOUCHIQIEGE。”(《LUNYU·WEIZHENG》)WAILAIFAGUIDEJIEZHISUIZHONGYAO,DANGENGZHONGYAODESHINEIXINDUILUNLIJIAZHIDEJIANCHI,RANGWOMENYOUSUOBUWEI。ZHEIZHENGSHIRUJIASIXIANGDUIDANGQIANZHEIGEGONGLISHEHUINENGGOUZUOCHUZHONGDAGONGXIANDEDIFANG。

   (ZHU:ZUOZHEWEITAIWANDAXUEJINGJIXIYUJINGJIYANJIUSUOBIYE,CENGRENTAIWANDAXUEXIAOZHANG、TAIWANXINZHUGONGYEYANJIUYUANDONGSHIZHANGDENG;XIANWEITAIWANDAXUEMINGYUJIAOSHOU、TAIWAN“ZHONGHUAQIYELUNLIJIAOYUXIEJINHUI”LISHIZHANG)